The heat of hydration is the heat generated when water and portland cement react. Heat of hydration is most influenced by the proportion of C3S and C3A in the cement, but is also influenced by water-cement ratio, fineness and curing temperature. As each one of these factors is increased, heat of hydration increases. In large mass concrete structures such as gravity dams, hydration heat is produced significantly faster than it can be dissipated (especially in the center of large concrete masses), which can create high temperatures in the center of these large concrete masses that, in turn, may cause undesirable stresses as the concrete cools to ambient temperature. Conversely, the heat of hydration can help maintain favorable curing temperatures during winter.